Monthly Archives: August 2011 - Page 2

Podiatrist Salary – A Brief Description

Podiatrists are doctors who are specialized in treating diseases of the foot. They treat problems such as diabetes, infections and do surgeries for all foot related problems. Their modus operandi is similar to that of a normal doctor where they prescribe drugs, surgeries and physical therapy but they do this only to foot related problems. For patients with long term foot disorders, they do laboratory test and prescribe special shoes which results in them having a comfortable walk. With changing people’s attitude to stay active and exercise more, there is a huge demand for podiatrist as in order to stay active and exercise, one needs a podiatric care. As the job is satisfying goes the pay scale too. A brief description on Podiatrist salary comes forth.

Many have delusions over a podiatrist and an orthopaedist just because both deal with foot related problems. To become a podiatrist one needs to complete a four year under gradation. If you want to complete your course with a certification then you need to undergo two to three years of residency programs at the time of your course. You are now a perfect graduate and can join as a junior or can form your own clinic. A podiatrist salary always depends on the platform he / she chooses after their education.

A podiatrist performs a bundle of tasks to determine foot related problems. Based on the x-ray report and diagnostic test a podiatrist concludes on the possible treatment and based on it prescriptions are given. Some podiatrists also prescribe medications that people should practise after their surgeries. A podiatrist should not only do surgeries but should also educate patients on the dos and don’ts to maintain their foot in the best healthy manner. All treatments cannot be done by a podiatrist. In such cases a podiatrist should consult the patient to the right place which can be done only by a doctor or a surgeon.

A podiatrist normally earns a minimum of $ 50,000 annually. The maximum pay a podiatrist earns should be around $ 300,000 annually. A podiatrists salary depends on the experience, place of work, educational qualification and the reputation he / she has gained over a period of time. If a podiatrist charges on hourly basis, then an experienced podiatrist can earn up to $ 80 per hour. If the foot doctors work in a multi speciality hospital, then they can earn from $ 120,000 to $ 250,000 annually. Surveys reveal that a podiatrist salary in care centres starts from $ 150,000 onwards to $ 180,000 annually.

A podiatrist like any other medical staff is also benefitted from schemes like paid holidays, retirement pension and health insurance. There is and will always be a great demand for podiatrists. If you are in a determination to take up this job, then make sure that you always practise under an experienced podiatrist. To gain more knowledge and information on the field, you have to become a member of The American Podiatric Medical Association. To connect yourself with professionals and to gain knowledge on the field you have to become a member of such associations. A podiatrist salary is always bound to hike every year as the field advances every day.

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What Is Shingles? Is Shingles Contagious?

So what is shingles? Is shingle contagious? Let’s find out!

Shingles a disease which is caused by virus named varicella zoster virus. It is also referred to as herpes zoster or simply zoster. In this disease there is presence of painful rash and blisters on the area on the skin where it affects. The pre-infection of this virus causes chicken pox in children which if failed to get eliminated can cause this disease. Varicella virus becomes dominant in the nerve cell bodies from which they travel to the axons or the end points of the nerve and cause the infection of the skin in the region of the nerve. Throughout the world the incidence of this disease is approximately 1-3 per 1,000 individuals.

Signs and the Symptoms:

The earliest symptoms of this disease are headache, fever & malaise. These symptoms are found in many other diseases so the diagnosis may go wrong initially. The symptoms are then followed by pain, itching, oversensitivity to the skin, needle pricking sensation and numbness. The pain experienced may be pricking, numbing, or throb type of pain. The pain occurs after a certain intervals of time. In children the rash is often painless while in adults it is painful. The rash in Shingles occurs on face, eyes or other parts of the body. The characteristic skin rash occurs more commonly on the torso. Initially the rash appears like a hives, the changes are limited to the dermatome, which is limited to one side of the body and doesn’t cross to the other side. Later the rash becomes vesicular and forms blisters which are filled with serous exudates and there is fever & malaise. The painful vesicles become cloudy and they are painful and they are filled with blood, crust occurs over a period of time and there is discoloration of the skin. Herpes zoster can affect some other parts of body as well like eyes causing infections like herpes zoster opthalmicus which involves the orbit of the eye. It affects the trigeminal nerve. The eye infections include conjunctivitis, keratitis, uveitis, and ophthalmic nerve palsies. These infections can cause loss of vision and unbearable pain. The ear infection caused by this virus is called herpes zoster oticus. It may cause hearing loss and vertigo.


Shingles occurs in people who have had chicken pox, and it may occur in any age but occurs predominantly in older age like in people with 50 years of age. The disease is due to virus reactivating in single sensory ganglion. It occurs in the patients whose immune is compromised otherwise it can be dealt with by the healthy individual. Hence it occurs mostly in older ages when the immune system is compromised or in people in whom immunosuppressive therapy is used or there is psychological stress. The virus on reactivation travels down from the nerve cell bodies to the axons and cause infection of the skin causing local inflammation and blisters.


Shingles or herpes zoster is prevented by a live vaccine called the zostavax. Research has proved that it prevents the disease in half of the population. It is also administered in adults as immune boost.


The treatment of Shingles involves administration of analgesics for pain. Antivirals for preventing the multiplication of the virus and steroid to surpass the inflammation.

So now you tell me, what is shingles?

Is shingles contagious?

I hope you found the answer to your questions.

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What Is Cystic Fibrosis Disease?

Cystic fibrosis is a serious disease which can prove to be fatal if not treated properly. This is a condition in which thick, mucous secretion builds up in body. The digestive tract and the lungs are most commonly affected. Cystic fibrosis mainly affects children and young adults.

This condition is caused due to an abnormal gene. Due to this genetic abnormality, the body starts producing mucous like thick secretion which builds up in the various organs of the body, especially the lungs and the pancreas. The suffering person may have serious breathing problems due to this when the lungs are affected and serious digestive problems when this condition affects the pancreas.

There are many individuals who are the carriers of this defective gene. However there is no symptom hence this condition cannot be diagnosed at an early stage. Usually the symptoms of this condition is seen in children at the age of 2 but there are some cases in which the condition remains undiagnosed even till 18 years of age.

What is cystic fibrosis has been answered, now let’s look at the symptoms.

Cystic Fibrosis Symptoms:

A) These are the symptoms of cystic fibrosis seen in a newborn

-the child fails to gain weight

-bowel movements fail to occur for the first 2 to 3 days after birth

-delayed growth may be seen

-the skin has a salty taste

B) Some of the bowel related symptoms of cystic fibrosis include the following:

– Severe constipation which may cause pain in the belly area

– Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite which results in the general weight loss

– The abdomen appears to be distended, bloating sensation along with increased gas

– Abnormal appearing stool. There may be unusual grey clay like color to the stool with a foul odor. Presence of mucous is visible in the stool.

C) Some of the symptoms of cystic fibrosis seen when the lungs and other sinuses are involved are as follows:

-increased mucous in the lungs and the other sinuses

-nasal congestion

-some individuals complain of extreme fatigue

-there may be recurrent episodes of pneumonia

-more sputum may be seen in the affected individual, increased coughing, shortness of breath, loss of appetite which results in gradual weight loss

-pain felt in the sinus area

D) Some of the long term symptoms of cystic fibrosis include the following:

-infertility in men


-respiratory infections and other symptoms


Tests which help in diagnosis of cystic fibrosis include the following:

A general blood test is generally used to diagnose cystic fibrosis. Additional tests may be carried out to detect the gene which is responsible for causing cystic fibrosis. A standard test known as the immunoreactive trypsinogen test is performed on a newborn to scan him for cystic fibrosis.

Another sign of cystic fibrosis is the presence of excess salt in a person’s sweat. Hence a sweat chloride test is usually performed.

Fecal fat test, lung function test, CT scan, pancreatic function test, stool examination are few of the important tests which help in diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.


–       Antibiotic to treat infection

–       Inhalation of medicines which open the blocked airway

–       Enzyme therapy to thin down the mucous

–       Hypertonic saline treatment

–       Lung transplant and oxygen therapy in serious cases

So now you tell me, what is cystic fibrosis?

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About Stomach Cancer Prognosis

Stomach cancer is also called Gastric Cancer or Adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Several types of cancer occur in the stomach, out of them Adenocarcinoma is the most common. Adenocarcinoma is commonly seen in males above the age of 40 years. It is commonly seen in places like Japan, Chile and Iceland. This incidence is most probably associated to the high amounts of smoked food, canned food consumed by people living in these regions. At a point of time it was commonly seen in the United States as well, but over the years its incidence has decreased considerably. This could be due to a decreased consumption of smoked and canned food.

A look at stomach cancer prognosis…

There are several risk factors associated with the development of Stomach cancer. You may be at an added risk if you have a positive family history of gastric cancer, history of smoking, if you are suffering from a condition called pernicious anaemia, chronic atrophic gastritis; you are suffering from Helicobacter pylori infection in your stomach or have a history of a adenomatous gastric polyp larger than 2 centimeters.

If you are suffering from stomach cancer you may complain of sudden weight loss which is unintentional. You may also complain of weakness, fatigue, pain in abdomen, difficulty in swallowing, nausea, vomiting, excessive abdominal fullness after meals, excessive belching, vomiting of blood, dark stools and loss of appetite.

If you fit into the high risk criteria and are suffering from symptoms suspicious of stomach cancer it is best that you visit your doctor at the earliest. It is usually not detected in the early stages as most patients suffer from mild symptoms and ignore these symptoms or self medicate themselves and visit a doctor only when it is very late. Once you visit your doctor he might advice you certain tests like Complete blood count, stool test and Oesophagoduodenoscopy with a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of stomach cancer as well as to detect the type of stomach cancer based on the biopsy report.

The treatment of stomach cancer involves a surgical procedure called as Gastrectomy which means removal of the stomach. Following surgery your doctor might advice you to undergo chemotherapy and radiation therapy both of which improve the chances of a cure and improve the survival rate. Patients, who cannot undergo surgery, may be advised to undergo chemotherapy or radiation therapy, which may not be curative but improves symptoms.

The stomach cancer prognosis largely depends on the part of your stomach involved – those located in the lower part of the stomach are cured more often than those higher up. The stage at which the cancer is detected also has an important role to play in the prognosis. In the early stages the cancer may spread into the deeper layers of the stomach lining, later on it may spread to the surrounding lymph nodes. When the tumour has spread well beyond the stomach and into the surrounding tissues, complete cure may not be possible and treatment is aimed at palliation of your symptoms.

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Stages Of Lung Cancer | A Look At All 4 Stages

Lung cancer is one of the most dangerous cancers. It affects both men and women equally. The mortality cases of lung cancer are the highest amongst all types of other cancers. It occurs mainly in the elderly. Cigarette smoking is the commonest cause of lung cancer.

There are various stages at which lung cancer presents. Stage 1 is the initial or the first stage of the lung cancer. Stage 4 is the most severe stage of lung cancer. The treatment pattern differs with the stage at which the lung cancer presents.

Stages of lung cancer are as follows:

Stage 1 lung cancer:

Stage 1 is the initial stage of lung cancer. The cancer detected at this stage is much better as with early diagnosis the treatment also is started immediately. In this stage the cancer cells are limited only to the lung area. All the surrounding tissues remain normal and unaffected by the cancerous cells. This stage is again divided into two sub stages 1A and 1B. This sub classification depends on the size of the tumor growth, also depends on the involvement of the bronchus. The treatment in most cases is in the form of radiation or chemotherapy and in some cases surgical treatment is necessary.

Stage 2 lung cancer:

In the second stage of lung cancer, the cancerous cells spread to the surrounding structures. It invades the lymph nodes, the diaphragm, the lung lining and the outer covering of the heart. This stage is also again divided into stage II A and II B. Sub classification again depending on the size of the tumor and depending on the bronchus involvement. At this stage too, the treatment would include that of radiation therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy and in certain cases surgical treatment is done.

Stage 3 lung cancer:

This stage is much invasive. The cancerous cells at this stage have invaded the space between the heart and the lungs. The lymph node involvement has also taken place. Cancer cells at this stage have involved the lower neck area. Due to the involvement of all these structures this stage of lung cancer is known as the locally advanced stage.

This stage is again sub divided. The stage III A is that in which the cancer cells have invaded the lymph node on the side on which the cancer started. This stage can be treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy or it can be treated surgically

Stage III B is that stage in which the cancer cells have invaded the lymph node on the opposite side from where the cancer started.  This stage of lung cancer cannot be treated surgically. At this stage the possible treatment of cancer includes radiation therapy, chemotherapy or any other forms of targeted therapies.

Stage 4 lung cancer:

This stage is the most critical stage of lung cancer. The cancer cells have invaded the entire lung. Surgical treatment is impossible at this stage. A combination of radiation and chemotherapy is generally done to treat lung cancer at this stage. Targeted therapies can also be done to treat stage IV lung cancer.

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Sinus Infection Home Remedy | Remedies For Fast Relief

A sinus is an air filled space present in the skull. There are four pairs of sinuses present in the skull. These sinus spaces are lined by a mucous membrane. Sometimes this mucous membrane gets infected causing its inflammation. By themselves these spaces are sterile and contain no bacteria or any other germs. But often they get filled up by mucous on which bacteria growth can take place. There are certain sinus infection home remedies which improve the condition drastically.

The main causative factors for a sinus infection are as follows:

-A deviated nasal septum.

-In cases where the cilia (which are small hairy projections in the sinus) fail to function properly. This condition can arise do to some kind of a medical problem.

-In cases of allergies or severe cold wherein the mucous builds up to such an extent where it blocks the sinus opening and hence causes infection.

The sinus infection needs to be treated as the infection can progress to the chronic stage and remain persistent for a good long time. Sinus infection home remedies are as follows:

-Normal precautions and efforts should be made to reduce the congestion. This can be done by inhaling steam at least 2-3 times in a day. By inhaling steam there is soothing action on the respiratory tract and it also helps to relieve any kind of congestion present in the lungs and also makes the thick secretions loose thereby improving the overall condition of the patient. This is the simplest and the best sinus infection home remedy.

-The suffering individual should drink plenty of water, by doing so the mucous thins down. This would help to relieve the sinus congestion to some extent. At least 3 liters of water should be consumed on a daily basis.

-Moist warm cloth application should be done several times a day.

-Nasal saline spray should be used throughout the day whenever possible.

-Usage of a humidifier improves the nasal decongestion.

-Inhalation of warm air from a hair drier or keeping a warm water bottle near the congested area or even warmth received from an infrared lamp will help in getting relief.

-Apple cider vinegar is known to improve the sinus infection and is one of the known home remedies for treating sinus problems. The effect is generally seen after an hour. Sometimes it takes about a day for it to act. If the condition does not improve even after two days then this home remedy should be discontinued.

-Self massaging is also done. Massaging certain facial areas help in decongestion.

-Irrigating the sinus tract is also done in lot of yoga techniques. By irrigating and sort of rinsing the sinus tract the condition is improved drastically. By practicing these techniques the excess mucous and other debris are washed out of the sinus tract.

-To avoid food which facilitates mucous formation is important especially when an individual is undergoing any treatment for the sinus infection.

-In certain suffering individuals, the causative factor for the sinus infection is not known specially in cases when it is triggered due to some kind of allergy. Hence it is essential to take general care, avoid air pollution and efforts should be made to improve the body immunity. Proper hygiene and care should be taken.

-Various kinds of aromatic oils also help to improve the condition. For example few drops of eucalyptus oil in hot water, one of the easiest sinus infection home remedy.

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Dealing With Shoulder Blade Pain

Shoulder blade pain or the scapular pain in most cases is a cause of any problem that lies in the neck area. Generally if the defect lies in the lower neck or the upper back area, the pain is felt in the shoulder blade area. This occurs as the nerves pathways that supply these areas are the same.

Very rarely it is seen that pain in the shoulder blade area is present as a result of the defect in the shoulder blade or the scapular region itself. It is very essential in correctly diagnosing the cause of the shoulder blade pain.

Some of the shoulder blade pain causes are given below:

-pain which is due to the rotator cuff is one of the main reasons for the shoulder blade pain. The rotator cuff is formed by 4 muscles and their tendons. Pain which is felt is generally due to the inflammation of the tendons. The condition is known as rotator cuff tendonitis. The rotator cuff tendonitis accounts for pain in about 30% of all the shoulder blade pain cases.

-the pain in the shoulder blade region is also present due to the bursa. The bursa is a fluid filled sac which lies in between the rotator cuff and the bone which lies adjacent to it. Sometimes there is inflammation of this bursa, which causes pain in the shoulder blade area. This bursa helps in the various gliding movements which take place in the joint area.

-acute pain in the shoulder blade area can also occur due to any kind of trauma, such as falling on the shoulder area or lifting a heavy object.

-calcific tendonitis is another condition which is responsible for the pain which is felt in the shoulder area. In this condition calcium starts to deposit on the tendons of the rotary cuff. When this occurs, the movement in the shoulder area gets restricted and the condition is accompanied with intense pain. There are various signs such as redness in the shoulder area and the shoulder area is warm to touch.

-frozen shoulder is a condition in which there is inflammation in the joint area. This condition also is responsible for shoulder blade pain along with restricted mobility of the joint.

The shoulder blade pain can be easily diagnosed when pain is felt when the arms are moved in an arc like fashion away from the body. This kind of movement is known as abduction. The pain which is felt is due to the defect which lies in the bursa or the rotator cuff.

The pain which is felt is usually persistent in nature. If this condition remains untreated, it can result in tear in the rotator cuff and also causes degeneration of the soft tissues.


Individuals who suffer from a tear in the rotator cuff generally show a history of pain in the shoulder area.

The tear which takes place in the rotator cuff is a gradual process. There may be signs of arm weakness, trouble in abduction of the arm and pain during the night. Eventually pain is associated with limitation of the arm movement.

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Rosacea Natural Treatment

If you are suffering from Acne rosacea there are plenty of home remedies and several other things that you can do to reduce the symptoms of rosacea and prevent worsening of the condition. One tip you must remember is that you must take good care of your skin and use soaps, lotions, creams which are made for sensitive skin. As any harsh cream or lotion can worsen your rosacea and even cause it to flare up. You can use cosmetics to mask the redness but make sure that you cosmetics are of a good brand and are not outdated. Also as far as possible do not use cosmetics containing harsh chemicals.

Whenever you leave home make sure you apply a sunscreen on the exposed parts of your body atleast half an hour to 15 minutes before stepping out in the sun. The sunscreen you’re using should have an SPF of 15 or higher. Also use an umbrella or a wide brimmed hat to minimize sun exposure as much as you can to prevent outbreaks of rosacea.

Now let’s take a look at some lifestyle rosacea natural treatment options.

During the winter season use a mild moisturizing cream daily in order to prevent your skin from getting too dry. Identify all possible trigger factors and note it down in a diary. Avoid these trigger factors as much as you can, as these can cause your rosacea to flare up. Avoid alcohol and alcohol containing beverages. Avoid spicy food and hot drinks as they are a leading cause of flare ups. Eat a well balanced diet and exercise regularly. Avoid excessive fried and oily foodstuffs. . Avoid use of hot water, hot tubs and saunas. On a hot day avoid direct sun exposure and stay indoors preferably. Also protect your cheeks and nose by tying a scarf and keep away from the cold and wind.

Maintain a stress free lifestyle as rosacea is known to flare up with excessive emotional and mental stress. Drink plenty of water and liquids throughout the day in order to make sure you are well hydrated all day long. Increase the amounts of B complex in your diet. You can take a capsule containing B complex – 100 milligrams daily. Beta carotene is a precursor of Vitamin A and you can take 25, 000 international units twice daily. Vitamin C is another Vitamin which is important to maintain the integrity of your blood vessels and strengthen their walls. You can take 500 milligrams of Vitamin C and bioflavonoids thrice daily. Zinc is an important mineral required by the skin, you can take 25 milligrams twice daily. Acidophilus and bifidus are known as the friendly bacteria and is an essential flora within your body. Increase your consumption of yoghurts or you may take a supplement containing Lactobacillus. These are all considered rosacea natural treatment options.

Some suggest intake of Flaxseed oils as it contains essential fatty acids which are known to reduce inflammation. Grape seed extract contains antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. Take 50 milligrams thrice a day. Rose wax cream or horse chestnut cream is beneficial in clearing up rosacea and can be applied on the affected parts twice a day.

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A Look At Registered Nurse Salary

Registered nurses generally work to promote good health and prevent illnesses and diseases. Generally, registered nurses are employed to take care of old people or people who are ill and need constant care and attention at home. They also educate the people around them about various medical conditions and provide emotional support to the patient’s family. Thus, they try and make this difficult period of illness a little more bearable both for the patient and the family.

Registered nurse salary is very high since they are constantly on call. Being a nurse is hard work and hence they have to be properly remunerated. There are many things that influence a registered nurse salary, namely, level of education, years of experience and training in a specialized area. Geographic location and the industry in which they work also influence nurses’ pay. The median annual salary in the United States is roughly $ 62,330. While those with limited experience earn up to $ 42,000 annually, veterans can earn more than $ 92,000 a year! California has recorded the highest registered nurse salary of a whopping $ 42 an hour which works up to an average of $ 87,500 a year. Moreover, registered nurses working in the personal care services seem to be earning the most i.e. around $ 41.5 per hour followed by those working for the Federal Executive branch. Thus, being a nurse is a very lucrative profession.

However, you must be wondering what exactly the job entails. Well normally, a nurse is required to maintain reports of their patients; monitor, record and report changes in the symptoms of the patients; modify the patient’s treatment as per his/her responses; consult with healthcare team members to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment; prepare the sterile instruments and ensure that adequate stock is maintained; deliver infants and provide prenatal care and conduct specified laboratory tests among many more activities. It is indeed a difficult profession that calls for absolute dedication and focus and more important care for patients. This definitely justifies why registered nurse salaries are so high.

As far as qualifying to become a nurse is concerned, you need to realize that the more experience you have, the better the pay and the job prospects. To become a registered nurse, high school graduates can obtain associate degrees in two year nursing programs or they can earn a diploma in three year programs run by hospitals. Another option is to obtain a bachelor’s degree of science in nursing which takes 4-5 years to complete. They are then eligible to take the national written licensing exam, which is mandatory to become a registered nurse.

Lastly, you will definitely be concerned about the job prospects for registered nurses. Well, fear not, because the job opportunities in this particular avenue are excellent! More than 600,000 openings are going to be available in the next 8 years. So if this is truly your calling, there’s no reason not to fulfill your dream.

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Physician Assistant Salary – An Outlook

All trades are mastered by us when we are under a supervision of a master. Whatever career we choose, the first designation we always get would be in a junior level or an assistant. Similarly to start your career as a physician, you need to acquire the field by enrolling yourself as an assistant to a well experienced and licensed physician. Technically known as PA, a Physician Assistant is someone who practices medicine under a guidance or supervision of a trained physician. He / She is been trained to perform all jobs a physician does. Physician Assistant salary varies depending on a number of factors. This article gives a brief description on some of them.

A physician assistant is someone who practises medicine under a doctor or a surgeon. To take up this job, one has to complete a physician assistant’s course or any medical degree. A physician assistant is trained to do diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic health care services. A Physician assistant salary is first decided by the doctor or surgeon who guides the assistant. If he / she are well skilled in providing health care to patients, then the physician can offer a very good pay. Some are even empowered to prescribe medicines to patients and diagnose critical conditions.

The major factors that govern a physician assistant salary are work location, educational background and area of specialization. According to surveys, pay scale of experienced assistant’s range between $ 120,000 to $ 200,000 for a year. The pay scale of a physician assistant with no experience would be around $ 180,000 for a year. On hourly basis a professional assistant may earn around $ 50,000. Physician who has a very good reputation among patients can make their assistant charge around $ 70,000 for one hour. The minimum pay that an assistant gets is $ 35,000 for one hour.

If the assistant works in an employment service industry then the pay scale would be around $ 100,000 for a year. If the assistant works in a scientific lab, then the pay scale will be $ 90,000 for a year. Speciality hospitals offer around $ 85,000 for an assistant annually. Also a physicians assistant salary varies from different state from $ 120,000 to $ 200,000. Apart from this certain physicians offer their assistant some special benefits like health insurance, retirement plans and paid holidays.

As the medical field advances every single minute, it’s vital to enter this field with some proper training. Physician assistant is a very good job profile for those who live with a dream of entering medical field but did not have the opportunity to go to a medical school. It has been predicted that this employment will have a very high demand in the near future. A physician assistant is always wanted in rural areas as well as in urban clinics. This is because these areas are subjected to several diseases but have very few doctors to take care of patients. A physician assistant’s pay is always satisfying to the job we do and the training we undertake.

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What Is Normal Blood Pressure Range

The pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the vessels while circulating in them is the Normal Blood Pressure. Generally when the term is used it signifies the arterial blood pressure in the systemic circulation. At the time of normal heart beat, the BP varies between the maximum called the systolic and minimum called the diastolic blood pressures. The blood pressure which is exerted on the wall due to the resistance to the flow of the blood decreases in arteries in the systemic circulation as the blood goes towards the periphery. The BP decreases as it moves into the smaller vessel like the arterioles and the capillaries and further in the venules and the veins. The venous pressure is less than arterial pressure.

Various factors affect the normal blood pressures. Factors Like the age and the gender affect the systolic and diastolic Normal Blood Pressure. In children the normal values are lower than the adults. As you go into adult stage the systolic blood pressure increases and the diastolic pressure falls. Differences between the right and the left arm blood pressures are a bit different but the difference becomes zero if enough amounts of observations are taken. Sometimes the difference can be a bit more than 10 mm of Hg. Such cases are seen in conditions called the obstructive arterial disease. The risk of the diseases of circulatory system increases if the Normal Blood Pressure is altered and it is raised above 115 mm of Hg of systolic blood pressure and 75 mm of Hg of diastolic pressure written as 115/75 mm of Hg.

Research has prove that the people who maintain their blood pressures at or near the lower range of the Normal Blood Pressure tend to survive longer and less exposed to cardiovascular disease. More the increase in the blood pressure more the chances of getting exposed to cardiovascular disease and death.

There are some physical factors that affect the blood pressure. These physical factors are then influenced by the other factors like called the physiological factors such as diet, exercise, disease, drugs or alcohol, stress, obesity, etc.

The physical factors are:

  • ·         Heart rate: It is the rate at which the heart pumps the blood. The volume of the blood pumped by heart during one contraction is called the stroke volume. Cardiac output is calculated by multiplying heart rate and the stroke volume. Therefore the more the heart rate the more is the blood pressure.
  • ·         Blood volume: It is the amount of blood present in the body. The more the amount of blood present in the body, the more will be the return of the blood to the heart and more will be the cardiac output leading to increased blood pressure.
  • ·         Resistance: The more the resistance to the flow of the blood more will be the blood pressure.
  • ·         Viscosity: It is the thickness of the fluid. The more thick the blood is more will be the blood pressure.


The Normal Blood Pressure is measured at the person’s upper arm on the inside of the elbow by a device called sphygmomanometer. It is measured as diastolic and systolic pressure written as 140/90.

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Common Imodium Side Effects

Imodium contains the active ingredient Loperamide. It is used frequently in the treatment of diarrhoea. Do not self medicate with Imodium just as you should not with most other drugs as there are plenty of Imodium side effects and contraindications. Visit your doctor when you suffer from diarrhoea and inform him of any medical conditions or allergies that you are suffering from. You must also inform your doctor if you are pregnant or breast feeding.

Loperamide acts by slowing down the movement of the intestines, thus allowing slower passage of its contents through the intestinal lumen. This enables more fluid and water to be absorbed. Thus the amount of faecal matter becomes much less as well as the frequency of passing stools decreases.

You must remember that Imodium will not correct the fluid and electrolyte balance caused due to the diarrhoea. Hence you must consume oral fluid and electrolyte replacement also known as oral rehydration therapy.

Loperamide may cause drowsiness and dizziness in some people. Hence if you are consuming it for the first time, do not drive or operate any machinery. People suffering from AIDS should stop consuming Loperamide and contact their doctor if they develop symptoms like swelling or distension of the abdomen. If you are having dysentery or blood in the stools, severe diarrhoea and fever or any other infection of the intestinal tract, do not consume Loperamide.

If you are pregnant do inform your doctor as it is not a safe medication to be taken during pregnancy. Similarly if you are breast feeding, you must mention it to your doctor. It may not be safe for you to consume this medication as it passes into breast milk and may have an effect on your baby.

People suffering from Liver disease also need to be carefully monitored by their doctor while they are on this medication. 

It is not safe to use Imodium in children below the age of 12 unless it is advised by a physician. It should not be given to children below 6 years of age without the prescription and supervision of your doctor. It is contraindicated in children below the age of 2 years.  

Loperamide is also known to interact with the following medications like alcohol, barbiturates like Phenobarbital, quinidine, ritonavir, tricyclic antidepressants like amitryptyline, nortriptyline, benzodiazepines like diazepam, lorazepam and phenothiazines like perphenazine and fluphenazine.

Some of you may be allergic to this medication and may develop severe allergic reactions like difficulty in breathing, swelling of the mouth or throat, hives, peeling or blistering of the skin. If you develop any of the above symptoms you must visit your doctor immediately and you must be treated for these complications immediately.

The side effects of Imodium are abdominal pain, stomach pain, cramps, discomfort or distension of the abdomen, constipation. If you experience any of these Imodium side effects you must contact your doctor immediately. Some of you may also develop symptoms like dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth, flatulence, headache, nausea or vomiting, weakness, burning sensation on the tongue.

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Common Back Of Heel Pain Causes

Heel pain is one of the most common complains faced by doctors. The heel area acts as a pressure bearing area of the foot. Various factors are responsible for causing the heel pain and it’s most commonly found in the back of the heel. The symptoms should be correctly studies and proper diagnosis should be made to treat the condition properly. There are various conditions which trigger heel pain such as strain on the bones, the ligaments, muscles which are located in the foot area.

Some of the common heel pain causes are listed below:

-Plantar fasciitis: a very common cause of pain in the heel is plantar fasciitis. The pain is generally felt when there is a tear in the plantar fasciitis ligament. This occurs due to excess stress which it is subjected to. In this condition the tight tissue which is located in the arch of the foot gets irritated, bruised and inflamed. This causes heel pain. Plantar fasciitis is caused mainly due to prolonged walking or if a person keeps standing for a long period of time. The other factors which may cause plantar fasciitis are wearing uncomfortable unsupportive shoes and weight gain which may happen in a short period of time.

-Heel spurs: severe pain is felt when a tiny fragment of bone is pulled away in the direction of the toes when the plantar fasciitis ligament gets retracted. This condition occurs when the ligament is subjected to excessive stress. The pain which is felt is very severe as the bone which gets dislocated starts invading into the nerves of the foot area and also the soft tissues present there. Heel spurs are generally present in all most all individuals who suffer from plantar fasciitis.

-Heel bruises: heel bruises are also a common back of heel pain cause. This occurs when there is any kind of injury to the heel area. This condition is also referred to as stone bruising. When a person walks for a long duration of time without shoes or without proper footwear can suffer from heel bruises. This happens due to bruising caused by stones or any other hard objects present which may cause stress to the heel area. This condition can improve on its own with taking adequate rest.

-Other stress related factors: fracture is on the main stress related heel pain cause. The calcaneus fracture is a rare occurance. This does not occur commonly, but is seen mostly in athletes and in people involved in some sport which involves lot of running activity.

-Achilles tendonitis– this is the heel pain in the posterior region. The Achilles tendon runs along the back area of the foot. A calf muscle which is very tight can cause excess stress on this tendon and hence is a common cause of heel pain. The pain which is felt is due to the inflammation of this Achilles tendon or retrocalcaneal bursitis. Again, this condition occurs mainly in athletes.

-Tarsal turner syndrome: this syndrome occurs in rare conditions. In the tarsal turner syndrome, there is a nerve which gets entrapped and pinched which is one of the rarer causes of heel pain.

-Overpronation: some people have a tendency to roll their foot during various foot related activity. This is seen generally in people who have flat feet. Overpronation is also one of the common heel pain causes.

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Common H1N1 Vaccine Side Effects

H1N1 vaccine is available in various clinics and dispensaries in mainly three forms:

-nasal spray

-multi-shot vials

-shots in a syringe

There are certain H1N1vaccine side effects which can occur after receiving the H1N1 vaccine. Some of the side effects are discussed below:

Like any other vaccine, the side effects of H1N1 can vary from some being mild in nature and some being severe. Severe side effects are usually seen in the form of a severe rash or allergy. Death is usually an unusual cause and is not seen to occur very commonly.


Mild H1N1 side effects which are seen are as follows:

(These mild forms of side effects usually last for about 2 days after the H1N1 vaccine is taken. The side effects can start from when the shot was taken.)

-there can be a presence of swelling in the area where the shot was given. Swelling is generally associated with redness and the area becomes sore.

-there can be mild fever after receiving the vaccine.

-some people complain of aches, they develop cough, hoarseness.

-itchy and watery eyes are sometimes seen.

-lymph node swelling

-diarrhea is seen to occur in some individuals.


Moderate forms of H1N1vaccine side effects are as follows:

-some people complain of dizziness, vomiting and feeling extremely weak

-stomach pain occurs at times along with inability to sleep

-numbness and tingling sensation occurs in the hands and feet.

-muscle stiffness, body ache, spasms, pain which is felt especially in the neck and the back area.

-mild form of rash which is accompanied with itching is seen in some.

-rarely there is pain along with slight heaviness in the chest which results in difficulty in breathing is seen to occur.


Severe forms of H1N1 vaccine side effects are as follows:

Severe side effects of H1N1 are not common. If they occur at all, they occur very rarely. The symptoms of which may start almost immediately after the shot was taken or at the most after a couple of hours.

-The severe forms of side effects are usually presented in the form of a severe allergic reaction. When an individual suffers from an allergic reaction there is sometimes a fear of the person going into a state of shock. This occurs when there is a sudden drastic fall in the blood pressure. If the blood pressure is not brought to normal in time then the person enters a state of shock which is definitely a medical emergency.

-other forms of severe H1N1 vaccine side effects include the risk of a person getting fits, sudden fall in the platelet level of the body and severe pain along the nerves. All these side effects occur very rarely.

-vasculitis may occur in rare condition due to which there may be additional problems such as severe rashes, pain in the various joints of the body and kidney function problems.

-inflammation of the nerves which can cause paralysis (Guillain-Barre syndrome)

-Encephalomyelitis and other forms of neurological complications.

If symptoms of any kind are noted by the patient then their doctor should be immediately informed about this happening as in a few cases the symptoms may be severe and may need medical help.

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Chiropractor Salary And Career Outlines

What is a Chiropractor?

A chiropractor (also called as a chiropractic or a chiropractic physician) may be classified as licensed primary health care provider who focuses on understanding and manipulating the relationship between the musculoskeletal (the muscles, the skeleton and the nerves) system of the body and its physical health. Some common techniques of treatment followed by chiropractors worldwide include, but may not be limited to:

  • Manual therapy, including manipulation of the spinal cord, various other joints, and soft tissues
  • Exercises (to relieve pain)
  • Health and lifestyle counseling

Chiropractors often function on the ideology that physical health of the human body may be revised or made better and at the same time be preserved just by making certain changes to the musculoskeletal structures, particular the spinal cord. Their practice does not involve the use of medicinal drugs in any form whatsoever or performance of surgical procedures (although they do recommend their patients to undergo such procedures if a need arises).

Any person who desires to be a chiropractor must undergo a 4 year bachelor’s (comprising of theory classes in the related field and lab work) degree at a chiropractor school. Chiropractors are then directed to attempt an examination administered by the state to obtain their licenses. A chiropractor salary can vary greatly which you will see why below.

Chiropractic as a Career

Recent statistical reports from the Bureau of Labour depict a bright future for people entering the chiropractic field. In fact, the report states that in the case of a chiropractor, a more fruitful career may be expected as compared to that of other alternative health experts. The career is known to have a great earning potential and chiropractors may enjoy relatively steady careers.

Yet, during his/ her schooling years itself, a budding chiropractor must be prepared to face the fact that chiropractor is not as booming a career during the initial stages as he/ she might have previously thought.

It takes a while for a newly passed out chiropractor to develop interest in his/ her new clinic. Usually, it takes a year’s time to see the business achieve a steady growth.


Chiropractor Salary Expectations

During the first few years, a chiropractor should expect himself/ herself to be earning a yearly income of $47,000. And with the new age alternative methods of healing and preserving the body coming to light by the each passing day, he/ she may expect a better income as the year’s progress.

But, well, there is some good news in store for you as a chiropractor. As a chiropractor, once you are well known in your community (of course, you should be good at your job for that!), you could expect to make an income of about $118,000 yearly!

As per statistical reports from the Bureau of Labor, the average yearly wage of a chiropractor spiked up from $66,490 in 2008 to $159,640 in 2010. A major portion of the population of chiropractors across the world is self-employed which means that they are dependent on their own practice. There you have it, a chiropractor salary is no joke!

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Flu Shot Reactions To Watch For

Flu is the most common reason for a person to be hospitalized. In serious conditions, the flu can be fatal. Statistics show that each year at least 35,000-36,000 people die of flu. This flu is caused by the influenza virus. The mortality rate can be drastically reduced by taking vaccines available at various hospitals and other authorized institutes for preventing flu caused by the influenza virus. Generally an annual flu shot is recommended for people who want to reduce the chances of getting flu. However, there can be some flu shot reactions after taking this shot.

Flu shots are generally safe and are recommended by many doctors but it is contraindicated in certain individuals like:

-In individuals who have suffered from an allergic reaction after getting a flu shot in the past. This is one of the serious flu shot reaction.

-flu shots are also not recommended for people who suffer from an egg allergy.

-some individuals suffer from this rare syndrome known as the Guillain-Barre syndrome. In this syndrome the immune system of the body starts to attack the nervous system of the body. This is a rare side effect seen after getting the flu shot. This kind of happening is seen to occur within 6 weeks after getting an influenza virus shot.

Some of the other general flu shot reactions are as follows:

-some individuals suffer from symptoms which are similar to those after catching a cold. Running nose, sore throat, headaches, stuffy nose, nausea some may suffer from cough and body aches.

In rare cases symptoms such as vomiting occur. Some suffer from a low grade fever along with muscle ache.

These symptoms last for a day or two. The condition is seen to improve on its own in a few days.

Flu shot reactions can be divided into three categories:

-local flu shot reactions.

-systemic flu shot reactions.

-allergic flu shot reactions.

A) Local flu shot reactions:

These are very mild reactions seen at the site at which the flu shot was given. These reactions include pain and swelling at the site of injection. These kinds of symptoms last only for about two days.

B) Systemic flu shot reactions:

As the name suggests these reactions show systemic changes in the body. These flu shot reactions do not appear immediately after the shot is taken. The symptoms of these are seen after 6 to 12 hours after the shot is administered. There are signs of mild fever, sometimes a rash develops, malaise, nausea, cramping and body ache are some of the reactions seen after getting a flu shot.  Again, these symptoms last for about two days.

C) Allergic flu shot reactions:

Some people suffer from an allergic reaction after the shot. These are seen to occur in those individuals who suffer from an egg allergy. Allergic reactions such as hives, angioedema and other forms of anaphylactic reactions are seen.

Flu shot reaction occurs commonly while taking the shot for the first time. The same side effects will mostly not occur when the next flu shot is taken or even if the side effects do occur they will be very mild in nature. If the flu shot reactions were very severe while taking the first shot then the doctor should be informed about this as care and necessary precautions should be taken while taking the second flu shot.

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Respiratory Therapy Assistant Salary, Job Description And Qualifications

Breathing is a natural exercise that is automatic and doesn’t involve any conscious muscle movement. Besides being one the simplest functions of the body, it is also the most essential. Lack of oxygen in the body can have dire consequences, especially to the brain. It can have permanent effects. With an increase in respiratory problems among the elderly and the middle-aged probably owing to the rise in pollution levels all over the world, respiratory therapists and respiratory therapy assistants are now highly demanded. Generally, the assistants or technicians help the respiratory therapists to diagnose and treat patients with respiratory problems which could culminate into something more serious and more dangerously, fatal like a heart attack or a stroke.

Respiratory therapy assistants generally earn a decent income. On an average, a respiratory therapy assistants salary is between $ 18,000 and $ 25,000 annually. Thus, though respiratory therapy assistant salary isn’t too much, the job is in high demand which has led to an increase in their wages. In fact, it is debated that respiratory therapy assistant’s salary is much lesser in proportion to the amount of work that has to be done. However, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2009 reported that the average remuneration for respiratory therapy assistants was $ 45,680 per year. Plus there are some industries which pay a higher sum to the technicians. For example, specialty hospitals pay an annual wage of $ 48,110.

Well, you must be wondering what exactly a respiratory therapy technician or assistant has to do on a daily basis. The job basically entails assisting the respiratory technician in treating patients who have respiratory and cardiopulmonary problems. Moreover, they have to maintain the respiratory equipment. They have little interaction with the patients at most changing their respiratory equipment. They also inspect the cardiac arrest resuscitation equipment. So the basic job of a technician involves assisting the therapist and ensuring the equipment is in proper order. They also test patients and teach them how to use home equipment. Another job that has to be done by the respiratory therapy assistant is maintaining the records of the patients. Given the wide array of responsibilities, respiratory therapy assistant salary is bound to shoot up.

As far as the educational qualifications are concerned, to become a respiratory therapy assistant or technician, you need to have a high school diploma and two year experience in health care related field. Plus you need to have knowledge of respiratory care & basic medical terminology. You also need to complete a one year course of study at a technical school or hospital and pass a written national exam.

And lastly, as far as the job prospects are concerned, you do not need to worry. As mentioned before, the rise in respiratory problems among people of all ages has led to an increase in the demand for therapists and assistants, specifically in the travel healthcare field. This avenue does seem promising!

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A Look At Gynecomastia Surgery

Gynecomastia is the abnormal development of large mammary glands in males resulting in breast enlargement present in the males. This condition can occur physiologically in neonates as well as in adolescence and adults. It occurs in adolescents and adults due to some abnormality in the metabolism or disorders of the metabolism. In adolescents the cause is not obesity as misinterpreted by many, but it is due to some distress. It stops after a period of time as the age increases.

The actual cause of gynecomastia is yet unknown but it is considered that it is due to the imbalance in the action of sex hormones or the response of the target organ to the hormones. The root cause is not easily identified. The condition is caused by imbalance in the action of estrogen and androgens on the breast tissue.


Surgery for gynecomastia can be addressed to male patients who feel very self-conscious about their appearance. The procedure removes the fat and the glandular tissue from the breast and the unnecessary skin present over it. It gives flatter and stiff appearance with a masculine contour.  Gynecomastia Surgery can be performed on man of any age with good emotional and physical health.  All surgeries have risk and the uncertainty. The complications can be infections, skin injury, excessive bleeding, and excessive fluid loss and adverse response to the anesthesia.

Before beginning the Gynecomastia Surgery a mammogram or X-ray is taken to determine the number of fat globules and the glandular tissue present in the breast. Vitamin supplements and advice to stop smoking and other tobacco related addictions and alcohol intake is given.

Anesthesia is chosen by the surgeon and it can be either general anesthesia or local anesthesia with sedation. Initially an incision is taken in the dark area around the nipple or in the armpit. Through this incision taken, the surgeon cuts away the excessive glandular tissue and the fat with the skin from the sides and the bottom of the breast. If liposuction is to be done along with the removal of the glandular tissue, the cannula is inserted into the incision, if the surgery involves greater amount of removal of the glandular tissue, large incisions are taken which can develop noticeable scars in the area where surgery is performed. If the abnormal breast consists of excessive fatty tissue instead of glandular tissue, a liposuction is preferred by the surgeon for the Gynecomastia Surgery. An incision is made near areola or near the underarm as comfortable for patient. The incision is small and a cannula, which is a slim and hollow pump which is attached to a vacuum pump, is inserted through the incision. A drain is inserted through a separate incision to relieve excess fluids. After surgery the incision are covered with dressing and bandage. It is normal to experience some discomfort for a few days after the procedure. It is relieved by medication. Swelling and bruising may be present. Gynecomastia Surgery improves your personality and boost self confidence, thus helpful in people suffering from gynecomastia.

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Common Causes Of Excessive Sweating

Excessive sweating is also called hyperhidrosis. It is caused by many factors but the most general cause is the genetic cause. Some have linked it with the over activity in the sympathetic nervous system. 1% or 2% of the people of the world population suffers from the excessive sweating. The part of the body in this condition sweats beyond the physiological needs.

It is generally an inherited condition; it affects the people and their social, functional and emotional level. Autonomous system consist of the two parts, the sympathetic and the parasympathetic system which affect the emotions like anger, anxiety and other factors like the heart rate and the blood pressure and many other functions. In cases of palmar hyperhidrosis, the responsible sympathetic ganglia that receive the wrong signal for that abnormal activity are located within the upper part of the chest cavity. In cases of the plantar hyperhidrosis or the foot sweating is due to the sympathetic ganglia that receive the wrong signals are located within a section of lumbar sympathetic chain. Excessive Sweating is further divided into following:

  • Generalized Hyperhidrosis: It is sweating over entire body
  • Focal Hyperhidrosis: It is the sweating focused at one area.

Generalized hyperhidrosis:

It occurs in most part of the body. It can happen on the face, trunk and the extremities. Such people may also suffer from other associated condition like obesity, febrile illnesses or some sort of neoplastic diseases or may suffer from some endocrine gland disorder. The causes of excessive sweating may be many but they are sometimes difficult to find. Thus the condition where the cause cannot be identified they are titled as the idiopathic disorder. The generalized hyperhidrosis is seen in the adult age as compared to the focal hyperhidrosis which is the juvenile condition. It is also seen more commonly in the elderly women. This may be due to ageing, hormonal factors and the lack of physical activity.

Focal Hyperhidrosis:

In this condition there are specific sites where excessive sweating occurs. The most common areas are the hands, armpit and the feet. The most known cause of this condition is the genetic association. It is seen in among 50 to 60% of the cases.  The sympathetic chain controls the glands which are apocrine or eccrine in nature. These glands are responsible for the perspiration throughout the body. The eccrine glands are concentrated in the palms and soles of hands and the feet. In some cases the face and the armpits are also affected.

It is also known that excessive sweating is caused by the over activity of the thyroid gland. But this cause was then discarded after years of research. Sometimes sweating occurs due to illnesses such as hyperthyroidism, psychiatric disorder, menopause and obesity.

Excessive sweating causes sweat in the parts affected such as palms of the hands. It is a grave problem for people suffering from this condition. It affects their day to day life. It is not a temporary condition. It may be present from childhood.

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Industrial Hygienist Salary Is Sure To Rise

If the discipline of occupational health and safety is one that you consider to be of utmost significance, the ideal career choice for you would be that of an industrial hygienist. You would not only be responsible for ensuring that the current health standards are maintained within the premises of the organization but also for formulating new ones. There are several ways in which a person can contribute and have an exciting career as an industrial hygienist. Among them is ensuring that potential health hazards are kept at bay and that employee safety is kept in check by evaluating occupational health and safety practices. Due to the significance of this role and its potential impact on the organization’s resources, the industrial hygienist salary is quite high in an organization’s wage structure. 


You will be responsible for undertaking special training sessions regarding safety in order to measure prevailing health standards and evaluate them accordingly. You will also need to coordinate with various government bodies and the community. An industrial hygienists salary is dependent on the ability of the individual to carry out these functions. Communication skills, as a result, are of paramount importance. Your ability to undertake research studies on various diseases and illnesses contracted by employees within the organization will also be taken into consideration. Potential hazards are evaluated by collecting samples of materials containing toxins. These are evaluated in a laboratory in addition to reviewing reports of accidents. You may also be required to prepare reports of commonly occurring industrial health problems. An industrial hygienist salary is paid based on his or her experience in conducting a cost-benefit analysis of protective equipment for employees.


Industrial hygienists are expected to be articulate and possess strong interpersonal skills. In order to be eligible for a high industrial hygienist pay, one must obtain certain educational qualifications. A high school diploma is a necessity, after which one can pursue a bachelor’s degree in science or any courses related to environmental science, physical sciences and natural sciences. To command a higher pay as an industrial hygienist, one could pursue a master’s degree or a course certified by the American Board of Industrial Hygiene.


An industrial hygienist salary can range from $40,000 to approximately $70,000 depending on educational qualifications and more importantly, the amount of experience. If you have sufficient knowledge of the industrial safety protocols prescribed by the federal government and other bodies, then you can command a better compensation. As industrial organizations continue to grow, there is a greater demand for maintaining higher safety standards outlined by these organizations. This job profile is therefore vital for organizations, as they would be required to submit periodical reports to the various governing authorities to indicate compliance with these safety guidelines. Adherence to all of them is a priority not only for the government but also for the industrial organization. Safety is no longer an afterthought in any industry, and job security is something you wouldn’t need to worry about if you choose to pursue a career in this field.

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Osteopathic Physician Salary Information

Osteopathy is a branch of medical science that aligns itself with the belief that the health of a human being is closely related to one’s body structure. Osteopathic physicians are those who practise this form of healthcare. On average, one can earn $156,010 per year on an osteopathic physician salary. Not only is there room to earn plenty of money and build a successful career, the employment outlook for people in this field or wanting to enter it is quite healthy.


Osteopathic physicians specialize in manipulative therapy, which is a treatment that requires them to adjust parts, mainly the bones and muscles, of each patient into what they believe is the ideal position. Doing so will eventually modify how the patient’s body functions and the belief is that an ideal functioning of one’s system can be attained. These physicians are quite similar to general physicians in the sense that they diagnose illness and injury and prescribe treatment in a similar manner. In fact, over 45% of all osteopathic physicians are family doctors or general practitioners. They also work out of private clinics or at hospitals, just like all the other specialists. 15% of them specialize in surgery, gynecology, psychiatry, neurology, pediatrics, obstetrics and internal medicine. As a doctor on an osteopathic physician salary, you also have the option to work out of an osteopathic hospital and medical schools.


As far as education is concerned, a student will need to complete his bachelor’s degree first. This is then followed by a four-year professional program at an osteopathic college. While it is similar to most medical school programs in terms of intensity and certification, a professional course in osteopathy reinforces the importance of anatomy and places emphasis on the relationship between the human body’s structure and its functioning. Before you can begin work on an osteopathic physician’s pay, you will need to complete an internship of one year at an osteopathic hospital, followed by a two to six-year residency that focuses on specialized training and prepares you for life as a full-time specialist.


You cannot become an osteopathic physician without a license. This is usually obtained after finishing the professional program at an osteopathic college and on successful completion of licensing examinations. In most states, you will also need to complete up to 7 years of graduate education in medicine before you can earn an osteopathic physician salary. The most successful osteopathic physicians are involved in private practice. They typically start off as assistants to established physicians and learn as much as they can before they take on a primary role themselves as staff at osteopathic hospitals.


Osteopathic physicians enjoy the same privileges from the federal government as other medical doctors. It is expected that jobs in this profession will grow at a rapid pace over the next three years and beyond, as the healthcare industry continues to expand. As health insurance expands to include osteopathic treatments as part of their plans, the number of patients utilizing these services will also increase.

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Patient Representative Salary Information

Customer relationship management is perhaps the most vital component of the service industry in today’s world. Public relations has played a major role in helping various companies across all industries to not only build their brand names but also to save them when things go wrong. A patient representative is the one who carries out these duties in a healthcare facility. He is responsible for dealing with patients and explaining to them various policies and procedures concerning their treatment. Depending on your skill and experience, you can earn between $30,000 and $60,000 on an annual patient representative salary.


Apart from the doctors at a healthcare clinic or hospital, it is the patient representative who is the face of the organization. He or she discusses everything from how to get to the facility itself right through to organizing special financial arrangements for those in need of financial assistance. He is also responsible for handling complaints and making sure that the customer experience is a pleasant one from start to finish. In the past, there wasn’t too much competition in the healthcare industry. But with privatization playing such a big role today, every clinic and even hospital strives hard to make sure that they are the preferred choice if their patients have any healthcare needs in the future. As the importance of this role grows in the coming years, so will the average pay that you can earn in this profession. As of now, the median annual salary is approximately $42,000. Of course, you are likely to earn a better wage if you work in bigger cities like Philadelphia. The higher the population, the greater the demand for healthcare. Those in the top bracket, earn as much as $68,000 on a patient representative pay.


As of now, there are numerous opportunities available for patient representatives in hospitals and medical centers. There are also a number of opportunities in private clinics, cancer centers, emergency wards, dental offices, heart institutes, orthopedic clinics, ophthalmology clinics, radiology centers and pediatric clinics, to name a few. It is expected that the demand for those with excellent interpersonal and communication skills will grow considerably over the coming years as expectations of the average customer increases and competition in the healthcare industry grows as well. With the right amount of experience in the healthcare industry and people skills, you can expect to earn higher than the average patient representative salary figures.


Many employers only require a high school diploma. Being able to interact with patients is more important and the medical knowledge can be picked up with on-the-job training. Other employers, especially the higher paying ones, require an associate or bachelor’s degree in nursing or a human services course. All employees need to have a certification in CPR before they can become eligible for a patient representative salary. As you will deal with people from different cultures and backgrounds, you need to be comfortable with helping people from all walks of life, as they will look to you for reassurance during difficult times.

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What Causes Lung Cancer | Time To Quit Smoking

The most common habit of what causes lung cancer is cigarette smoking. 90% of the lung cancers are caused by use of tobacco or smoking tobacco. The more the cigarettes you smoke, the more you develop the chances of lung cancer. It is also directly related to the time for which the smoking is done. It is related to the number of packets of cigarettes smoked. For example, if the person consumes 2 packs i.e. 40 cigarettes per day increase the chances of development of cancer after 20 years. Pipe and cigar smoking also increases the chances of lung cancer but the chances are lesser than by cigarette smoking. The person who used to smoke but now has stopped has decreased chances of developing lung cancer but it never comes to a level of non-smoker. The reason cigarette smoking causes cancer is presence of around 4,000 chemicals which are responsible for the development of cancer, also called carcinogenic substances.

Passive smoking which means inhalation by the non-smokers staying in company with the smokers is also prone to the development of the cancer. People staying in company of cigarette smoker have 25% more chances of developing the cancer than the non-smokers not staying in company of cigarette smokers. There are also other factors responsible for the development of cancer.

It is also caused by other factors like the asbestos particles. Asbestos fibers are the silicate fibers which can remain in the lungs for a longer period if inhaled. The people most prone to such exposure are the people working at the factories of acoustic and thermal insulation where the presence of asbestos is present more. Due to this the use of asbestos has been banned in countries like USA. The exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking together increase the chances of developing of cancer more. The non-smoking people who are exposed to the asbestos have five times more chances of causing lung cancer than the non-smokers who are not exposed to asbestos. While people smoking and having exposure to asbestos have 50 times more chances than the non-smokers.

Other than smoking and asbestos exposure, a gas called Radon gas also causes the cancer. The gas is a natural decay product of the radioactive element uranium. It causes lung cancer because it emits ionizing radiations. Radon gas is responsible for 12% deaths among all deaths due to this cancer. Radon gas can enter through the soil and enter the houses through pipes and chimneys and hence many countries have developed programs for its prevention. Radon gas is invisible and odorless but can be detected by simple kits.

There are also some familial or genetic associations with the causation of lung cancer. Apart from smoking individual genetic makeup can also lead to development of lung cancer. The specific genes located on the q arm of chromosome 15, the gene that interacts with the nicotine and other tobacco related substances. The presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is also a predisposing factor for causing lung cancer. Air pollution from vehicles, industries and power plants is also responsible for the cancer.

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Common Symptoms Of Syphilis

Syphilis is one of the most common types of sexually transmitted disease. It occurs due to the bacteria known as the treponema pallidum. The treponema pallidum belongs to the spirochete family and affects both males and females.

The symptoms of syphilis vary. This variation is due to the stage of the infection at which the condition presents.

In most cases of the initial stage of syphilis the symptoms go unnoticed. The affected person generally presents with sores which are painless. The individual would also present with swelling present in the lymph node area. As the condition progresses without any form of treatment the suffering individual may show signs of persistent fever, body aches, appetite loss along with fatigue. If the condition is left untreated it can prove to be fatal as eventually other organs of the body would get involved. The symptoms of syphilis may be difficult to diagnose as the symptoms with which it presents is similar to most of the other infections.

Symptoms of primary syphilis:

The main symptom of syphilis at this stage is the chancre. The chancre may appear anytime between the first 15 days to 3 months after acquiring the infection. The chancre may be single or multiple. The most common sight for the appearance of the chancre is the anus, the vagina, the scrotum and the mouth. The chancre even if not treated, may regress, however there is always a chance of recurrence of the condition in periods of stress.

Symptoms of secondary syphilis:

This stage is considered as the most contagious stage of syphilis. At this stage the bacteria multiplies and spreads rapidly throughout the body. This stage is characterized by the appearance of rash on the body. This rash is commonly seen on the extremities of the body specially the palms and the soles. The person also presents with moderate to high fever with fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, body pain, headache, extreme weakness, hair loss and sometimes the appearance of white patches anywhere in the body. As seen at the stage of primary syphilis, at this stage also the symptoms of syphilis may regress after a while but if not treated then the condition progress to the next stage of syphilis known as the latent stage of syphilis. Hence it is important to correctly diagnose the condition whenever the detected.


Symptoms of latent syphilis:

The latent stage in syphilis does not present with any kind of major symptoms. Detection of the virus in the body can only be possible through a blood test. The condition of the patient can be totally revered till this stage of syphilis. This latent stage can last from 2 to 20 years after the symptoms of syphilis have disappeared.

Symptoms of tertiary syphilis:

This is the most dangerous stage of syphilis. The symptoms of syphilis at this stage can show anytime. Sometimes it takes about a year for the symptoms to show up in tertiary syphilis and sometimes it takes 20 years. At this stage the blood vessels of the body are affected and also various organs in the body are affected. This condition is characterized by blindness, nervous problems, various kinds of nervous disorders, heart problems and sometimes death. Neurosyphilis and cardiosyphilis are seen to occur at this stage.

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Right Side Pain | Pain In Right Side

Pain in right side of the body would include pain arising anywhere from the right side of your head to your right foot. One must remember that any injury or problem of the skin, muscle, bone, joint, nerves, organs and connective tissue can cause pain. At the level of skin any abrasion, injury, laceration can cause pain. Another important cause of pain on the skin would be pain arising from the dermatomes. Dermatome is an area of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve. Thus any impingement of the nerve root at the level of the spine can cause a referred pain to its respective dermatome. For example pain arising due to a cervical intervertebral disc bulge at the level of C5 and C6, will cause pain along the lateral part of your arm, lateral part of your forearm up to your thumb.

Joint pains could be as a result of injury, inflammation, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hyperuricaemia, synovitis, haemarthrosis etc. Joint pains usually present will present as localised swelling and pain over the joint and difficulty in moving the joint. Any bone problem like bone infections (osteomyelitis), injuries, fractures will cause severe pain over the part of the bone injured.

Right sided abdominal pain is of significance, as there are many structures located which may be the cause of severe and sudden pain. The liver is located in the upper part of the right side of your abdomen. Conditions like Hepatitis, liver abscesses, amoebic liver abscess may be a cause of pain.

The gall bladder is another organ which can frequently be a cause of right side pain in the abdomen. Biliary colic is a condition produced due to entrapment of a gall bladder stone in the gall bladder or in one of the ducts. With a biliary colic you may complain of severe crushing right upper abdominal pain of sudden onset, accompanied with nausea and vomiting. The pain may radiate to the back or up to the chest. Another cause of pain is cholecystitis which means infection and inflammation of the gall bladder. Due to which you may complain of severe pain the right side of your abdomen, associated with fever and vomiting.

Appendicitis is a clinically significant cause of pain in right side in the abdomen which usually presents as dull, constant ache beginning in the umbilical region and settling in the right lower quadrant of your abdomen as a mild to severe pain, accompanied with nausea, vomiting, fever, loss of appetite. It is commonly seen in age group of 9 to 40 years.

Renal stones or ureteric calculi can cause severe pain of a sudden onset starting in the loin and radiating to the groin, accompanied with nausea, vomiting, restlessness and perspiration during the episode of ureteric colic.

In women, ectopic pregnancy can present with pain in the right lower quadrant of your abdomen, intensity may vary from mild discomfort to severe, sudden pain. The other symptom is vaginal bleeding along with the pain and dizziness. Another cause of right side pain in women is right ovarian pain. Right ovarian pain may be caused as a result of torsion of an ovarian cyst or rupture of an ovarian cyst. Both of which present with sudden, severe pain in the right lower abdomen accompanied with nausea and vomiting.

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