Knee joint pain is the most frequent musculoskeletal complaint. The pain the knee area can arise due to a number of reasons. The cause for a specific type of knee joint pain is different even the treatment pattern would vary. More number of knee joint pain cases is seen these days because of the change in the lifestyle pattern. This joint is the largest joint in the body which is subjected to a lot of stress all throughout the lifetime of an individual.
The knee joint acts as a hinge. The main action which takes place here is that of bending and stretching of the knee. The joint is supported by a number of bones, ligaments, cartilages and tendons.
The femur and the tibia mainly make up the joint. The four ligaments which support this joint are the: medial and the lateral collateral ligaments, the anterior and the posterior cruciate ligaments. The articular cartilage and the patella also help to form the joint. The synovial membrane protects the joint by nourishing it and reducing friction in the joint during its various movements.
The most common causes of knee pain are as follows:
- rheumatoid arthritis
- meniscal injuries
- ligament injuries
- patella fracture
- tibial fracture
- osgood schlatter disease
The knee joint pain seen in osteoarthritis is due to erosion of the joint cartilage. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease. The cartilage is a smooth covering which bones. Osteoarthritis is commonly seen in individuals who are obese.
This condition is also a cause for the knee joint pain. In rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system of the body is affected. In this condition the white blood cells of the body attack the joint area. Mainly the synovium is affected in this condition causes pain, swelling, redness in the joint area. As the condition progresses the abnormal cells start attacking and eroding the muscles, the ligaments and tendons which thereby weaken the joint area.
The menisci in the knee joint are semicircular structures which act as shock absorbers. These can be injured which thereby causes pain and discomfort to the joint. These kinds of injuries are mainly seen in young sport persons. This is not common to occur yet is a cause of knee joint pain.
The ligaments mainly act by providing stability to the joint area. These ligaments get torn when the joint is overused. This condition mainly occurs in football players, hockey players, skaters and any sport which involves a lot of running
The bursa helps in the frictionless movement of the knee. These are sac like structures which cover the knee. When they get inflamed, lot of pain is felt in the knee joint area.
Patella and tibia fracture:
The patella or the knee cap is the front covering of the knee. The patella and the tibia fracture again could occur due to any kind of injury to the joint. This is again one of the most common causes of knee joint pain.
Osgood schlatter disease:
This occurs as a result of traction over the tibial tuberosity. This condition is seen in adolescents commonly. This condition is associated with swelling and knee joint pain.
The treatment for knee joint pain would vary according to the causative factor of the condition.
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