Complex Partial Seizures | Partial Complex Seizures

The complex partial seizure is a form of an epileptic seizure. This condition is characterized by the loss of consciousness. They are the commonest type of seizures to occur in adults.

These kinds of seizures are preceded by the simple partial seizures. The simple partial seizures are also known as the seizure aura. Simple partial seizures are characterized by disorientation, disturbance in the normal vision, fear and euphoria. Once the person regains normal consciousness he resumes normal activities. Also complete loss of memory about the seizure occurs.

Seizures are brain related disorders. Complex partial seizures are caused particularly when the temporal lobe is affected, especially the mesial part. However these kinds of seizures can occur even when any other parts of the brain are involved.

The exact cause of the partial complex seizure still remains unknown. They occur mainly due to abnormal electrical activity of the brain.

Some of the possible causes are listed below:

  • ·         sclerosis of the medial temporal lobe of the brain
  • ·         due to any neoplasms
  • ·         because of any infections of the central nervous system
  • ·         any kind of vascular or corticular malformations
  • ·         due to a stroke
  • ·         can occur due any kind of inflammation of the central nervous system
  • ·         hypoxia which may result from some kind of a brain injury can also cause this type of seizure
  • ·         trauma
  • ·         sometimes the condition is hereditary

Some of the symptoms of the complex partial seizures are as follows:

  • ·         repeated movements or repeated behavior
  • ·         anxiety
  • ·         changes in the cognition

When a person suffers from a traumatic injury to the brain, or any neoplasmic sites in the brain, act as the focus of the seizure activities.

Diagnosis of partial complex seizures:

This condition can be diagnosed with an EEG which would demonstrate the abnormal electrical discharges in the brain. An EEG also helps to localize seizures in many cases.

Complex partial seizures can also be diagnosed with the help of the neuroimaging techniques available. These help in diagnosing the various brain related abnormalities. MRI scan is useful in detecting any kind of abnormality in the structure of the brain. CT scans are also useful in diagnosing the condition.

New types of diagnostic scans are the PET scans and the SPECT scans. These are scans which again would help us to detect any kind of abnormal brain activity.

Treatment of complex partial seizures:

After the condition is properly diagnosed, prompt treatment should be started immediately.

Anticonvulsant medications should be taken to treat partial complex seizures which are prescribed. This will help to control the seizure activity. Many types of anticonvulsants are available such as gabapentine, carbamazepine etc. the dose of the drugs will gradually be increased to control and prevent seizure activities.

Sometimes the drug therapy fails to work for some individuals in such people surgical treatment to treat seizures is necessary. The anterior cranial lobectomy is the best surgical treatment for complex partial seizures.

Brain mapping is done in some cases of complex partial seizures. By this the center of focus is determined. Sometimes the neurologist decides to remove the focus causing the complex partial seizure. This is done only if the normal brain activity is not compromised. 

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