Spotting The Symptoms Of Azotemia And The Treatment Available

Azotemia is one of the most search diseases nowadays. The reason is because of the alarming increase of patients having this kind of disease.  So what is it and what are the symptoms one can observe? Or are there different types of this disease?

Azotemia is the medical condition wherein the patient has abnormal high levels of compounds containing nitrogen. Such compounds are the urea, creatinine, several body waste and nitrogen-rich compounds within the blood. Uremic syndrome or uremia happens when the excess nitrogen compounds becomes toxic to your body. If left untreated, it can become a renal failure wherein the kidneys shut down.

It has three types that differ from the cause or origin but have common features. All these types are categorized by the reduction in the GFR or glomerular filtration rate of the kidneys and a rise in the BUN or blood urea nitrogen and concentrations in the serum creatinine. Usually the normal ratio for the blood urea nitrogen to creatinine or BUN: Cr is less than 15.

The three types are the Prerenal, Renal and Post renal Azotemia. The prerenal type is the most common type especially to those patients who are hospitalized.  It is experienced once there is a decrease in the flow of blood to the kidneys these is medically called as the hypo perfusion. It can occur once there is shock, hemorrhage, congestive heart failure, volume depletion and narrowing in the renal artery.

Prerenal’s BUN:Cr is usually greater than 20. This might be because of the filtration mechanism of the creatinine and the BUN. The levels of the glomerular filtration rate or GFR are reduced due to the hypo perfusion which leads to an increase in the creatinine and BUN. While the kidney is functioning well, the response to the reduced GFR might lead to an increase in the reabsorption rate. This leads to an increase in urea and water reabsorption from the proximal tubes. This leads to the ratio which is higher than 20 and elevated osmolarity of urine.

On the other hand, Renal Azotemia or acute renal failure leads to uremia, which is the result of a damaged renal parenchymal. Other causes can be acute tubular necrosis, glomerulonephritis, renal failure and other renal diseases. The BUN: Cr of the renal type is less than 15. However in renal diseases, the rate of the glomerular rate decreases.

This leads to no filtration at all. Plus the filtered urea area is not reabsorbed by the proximal tubes which can lead to lower urea level in the blood and higher urea level in the urine. Also since the creatinine filtration decreases it also leads to the blood containing high amounts of creatinine.

Now let’s go to the Post renal Azotemia type. This type is caused by the blocking of urine flow in the area below the kidneys. This can be caused by the congenital abnormalities like the blockage of the ureters, vesicoureteral reflux, blockage of the urethra and compression of the ureters. The increase in the resistance of the urine flow can lead to hydronephrosis. The postrenal’s BUN: Cr is also less than 15.

Here are some of the signs and symptoms that a patient may fee. The patient may experience fatigue, confusion, decreased alertness, asterixis coupled with a decrease or absent urine production. The patient may also have pale skin color, rapid pulse rate, a dry mouth, swelling of the edema, a rise and fall of the blood pressure and uremic frost. The patient can undergo urinalysis to help show if she is affected with Azotemia.

There are some treatments that a patient can undergo. Treatments might include hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.


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