Testicular pain also referred to as scrotal pain relates to pain felt in one or both the testicles. There are many conditions that may produce such a pain. Some causes may be trivial; others a little more serious and damage the reproductive ability of the man and a few others may even be surgical emergencies. Thus it is extremely important to diagnose the cause of pain than mere treatment with some painkiller medication. Depending on the duration of the pain the cause of pain may be of acute, sub-acute or chronic duration.
Some causes of pain are mentioned below:
Trauma: This is the most common causes of testicular pain. The pain due to trauma can range from mild to extremely severe depending on the degree of injury. Various types of trauma are possible like a direct blow, blunt injuries sustained from car accidents, sports injury, punch or kick. This may cause swelling and bruising on the scrotum.
Torsion of testis: This is a surgical emergency. The testicle twists upon itself inside the scrotum, in response to trauma or occasionally spontaneously. The blood vessels within the spermatic cord also twist and leads to decreased blood supply to the testicle. If the torsion lasts for a longer time, decreased blood supply can cause death or infarction of the testicular tissue. This condition is most commonly seen in the first few months of life and in boys between the age group of 12 to 18 years. It may also be seen in men having a deformity in the normal attachment of the testicle to the scrotum.
Torsion of a testicular appendage: This is also a common cause of testicular pain in younger boys. It mostly affects boys between the ages of 7 to 14 years of age. An appendage literally means persistence of a tissue which does not serve any function in body.
Epididymitis: It is an inflammation of the epididymis. Most commonly produced due to infection. It is the most common cause of testicular pain in men older than 18 years of age. Epdidymitis is common in sexually active males, most common etiological agents being gonorrhea or Chlamydia.
Inguinal hernia: In cases where the hernia protrudes into the scrotum it may produce some amount of discomfort and swelling.
Orchitis: It means inflammation of the testicle, most commonly produced due to an infection. It may be seen along with epididymitis, especially when epididymis is untreated the infection spreads to the testis. It may be caused due virus or bacterial infection.
Testicular tumour: A tumour may cause minimal testicular pain.
Renal stones: A calculus in the ureter may cause pain radiating from loin to groin and into the testicles or tip of the penis. Thus being a cause of testicular pain.
Treatment: The cause of testicular pain must be diagnosed in every case and the cause must be treated. In cases of testicular torsion immediate surgical intervention is required in order to salvage the testis. For pain certain pain relieving medications like ibuprofen or acetaminophen may be used in order to provide temporary relief of symptoms. In cases of infection, it must be treated promptly with antibiotics in order to prevent spread of infection.
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