Bruises may be neglected and taken for granted as they are viewed as just simple discolorations that will go away after some time. However, there are different kinds of bruises and they must be identified since there are recurring ones that need the attention of health experts. Those that exceed the diameter of one centimeter are called ecchymosis, the smaller ones are called purpura, the diameter of which reaches three millimeters and those that do not reach either of the two sizes and are relatively smaller are called petechial.
Mucous membranes and the skin are the common parts of the body where ecchymosis usually appears. These are visible as dark spots on the skin with drawn-out borders than other types of bruises; they occur because of a trauma from an external force that results to the breakage or rapture of small blood vessels beneath the skin surface, they are in short also known as slight cases of internal bleeding. They differ in sizes since blood leaks into the adjoining area where the venules or the capillaries of the blood erupt due to the force and trauma.
Ecchymosis usually appear at first as purple in color or at times they are bluish black within a short span of time after the accident or the injury that resulted to the bruise, as days pass by they become green which later develops into a yellowish brown color and finally as they close the healing phase, it becomes brown, during which it no longer aches and the person might not feel anything at all when the bruise is pressed unlike during the early stages. The enzymes in the body are responsible for the color changing as they are working on the hematoma throughout the healing process.
The healing process of ecchymosis involves several stages wherein the white blood cells known as macrophages work as cleaning agents that absorb the red blood cells that have been spilled to the adjoining areas where the trauma happened; from there the red blood cells will be transformed into biliverdin which will later become bilirubin and this will be transformed into hemosiderin. Once the process reached its completion the bruise will then be cleared.
The basic treatment of ecchymosis can be done using first aid treatments and painkillers. The person is advised to take a rest and elevate the portion that suffered an injury and has been bruised so that the circulation of blood will be normal. Ice may likewise be applied on the affected area to improve the condition and alleviate pain; a good massage can also be done just as long as it does not aggravate the condition of the patient to avoid more bruises. Exercise and basic stretching can also help speed up the healing process of the bruise. However, when the bruises reoccur and there is no known cause or trauma to cause the rapture of blood vessels, the person is advised to consult health experts immediately since it may already be a symptom of other underlying diseases.
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