The pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the vessels while circulating in them is the Normal Blood Pressure. Generally when the term is used it signifies the arterial blood pressure in the systemic circulation. At the time of normal heart beat, the BP varies between the maximum called the systolic and minimum called the diastolic blood pressures. The blood pressure which is exerted on the wall due to the resistance to the flow of the blood decreases in arteries in the systemic circulation as the blood goes towards the periphery. The BP decreases as it moves into the smaller vessel like the arterioles and the capillaries and further in the venules and the veins. The venous pressure is less than arterial pressure.
Various factors affect the normal blood pressures. Factors Like the age and the gender affect the systolic and diastolic Normal Blood Pressure. In children the normal values are lower than the adults. As you go into adult stage the systolic blood pressure increases and the diastolic pressure falls. Differences between the right and the left arm blood pressures are a bit different but the difference becomes zero if enough amounts of observations are taken. Sometimes the difference can be a bit more than 10 mm of Hg. Such cases are seen in conditions called the obstructive arterial disease. The risk of the diseases of circulatory system increases if the Normal Blood Pressure is altered and it is raised above 115 mm of Hg of systolic blood pressure and 75 mm of Hg of diastolic pressure written as 115/75 mm of Hg.
Research has prove that the people who maintain their blood pressures at or near the lower range of the Normal Blood Pressure tend to survive longer and less exposed to cardiovascular disease. More the increase in the blood pressure more the chances of getting exposed to cardiovascular disease and death.
There are some physical factors that affect the blood pressure. These physical factors are then influenced by the other factors like called the physiological factors such as diet, exercise, disease, drugs or alcohol, stress, obesity, etc.
The physical factors are:
- · Heart rate: It is the rate at which the heart pumps the blood. The volume of the blood pumped by heart during one contraction is called the stroke volume. Cardiac output is calculated by multiplying heart rate and the stroke volume. Therefore the more the heart rate the more is the blood pressure.
- · Blood volume: It is the amount of blood present in the body. The more the amount of blood present in the body, the more will be the return of the blood to the heart and more will be the cardiac output leading to increased blood pressure.
- · Resistance: The more the resistance to the flow of the blood more will be the blood pressure.
- · Viscosity: It is the thickness of the fluid. The more thick the blood is more will be the blood pressure.
The Normal Blood Pressure is measured at the person’s upper arm on the inside of the elbow by a device called sphygmomanometer. It is measured as diastolic and systolic pressure written as 140/90.
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